Research on need and motivational aspect of employees has come a long way ever since the conduct of experiments on human side of production process. This was done by Mayo, collectively referred to as Hawthorne Studies. The studies carried from 1924 to 1932 revealed that workers can be induced to perform better provided effort is applied on part of the management to alter their attitude. Behavior is only the reflection of attitude. Money is not the sole motivating factor. Intensity of effort applied and resultant performance can be enhanced provided the elements at the work place and managers are capable of striking the right attitude in employees.
The primary theories of the ‘;Hierarchy of Needs Theory’; by Abraham Maslow, "Theory X and Theory Y ‘;by Douglas McGregor and’; Two factor theory ‘;by Herzberg have substantively laid foundations on which current works are validated. fundamentals owed to the ease of their application and intuitive acceptance.
Motivation is the willingness to exert high levels of effort to achieve certain goals conditioned by the ability of the effort to satisfy certain individual needs. Since here our focus is towards organizational goals since we restrict our discussion on motivation of employees. Motivation is intrinsically regulated and drives the individual to satisfy an unsatisfied need which in turn creates tension. Currently mangers make use of following theories
o Vroom’;s expectation theory which states that intensity of effort on the part of employee leads to performances which leads to rewards. Rewards can be positive as well as negative. The more positive the rewards greater is the level of motivation.
o Adam’;s Equity Theory says that employees attempt to endeavor towards equity – visible as well as perceived between them selves and their peers. Equity is achieved when the ratio of their output to the inputs is equal to the peer’;s output over input. In the event they perceive inequality they will strive to restore by way of less efforts, absenteeism or voluntary opting out of the job.
o Skinner’;s theory of Reinforcement states that employee behavior which is encouraged; there is much similarity that it will be repeated. Whilst the behaviors that are rebuffed or snubbed are less likely to be repeated.
Motivation is a need satisfying process. It is an interaction between the individual and his situation or background. One factor may motivate one employee may not be the motivated factor for another. Research shows practically cent percent employees are motivated by interesting work content and good wages. Receiving any kind of sympathetic help from the organization is last thing in their list of wanted? As for other factors there is inconsistency in the order of what motivates one from another and is dependent upon his education, cultural differences, financial condition and other contexts in which he works. These factors can be:
o Better wages
o Job security
o Appreciation for performance
o Promotion and growth
o Personal loyalty to employees
o Good working conditions
Managers can take care of job enrichment and job expansion in their effort to make work more interesting and appear more rewarding to the employee. This can be done by increasing the quality and quantity of activities in a job. Increased activities can be in the form of additional responsibilities for which he can be compensated accordingly the taking of care of the ‘;interesting work’; and ‘;good wages’; part which should be able to motivate the worker.
Manager should conduct a qualified research in this context with the help of a structured questionnaire validated by professional. This will help him understand what factors are instrumental in motivating them. These can be grouped level wise and a suitable motivation program can be designed accordingly.