The Federal Office for Migration and Refugees defines migration in the following way: “Migration occurs when a person changes the location of their usual place of residence. International migration occurs when this movement crosses national boundaries.”
Immigration is defined as “to enter and usually become established; especially to come into a country of which one is not a native for permanent residence.”
The main reason behind immigration is the search for better living and working environment, when compared to the native countries of the individuals. In addition to this is massive poverty leading to high fertility, unemployment and low wages. Also, high population puts pressure on the educational and the health facilities. To overcome these factors, immigrants migrate in the hope for better lifestyle and income opportunities. Also, some of the necessities such as electricity, water, educational and medical facilities are available in abundance. With these are the established system and an efficient organizational set up that ensures multiple opportunities on the professional front for a migrant. Other factors include weather and environmental conditions such as clean, hygienic and a pollution free state.
Immigration also happens due to political insecurity, prosecution and bad governance. Human rights such as the freedom of speech and the right to vote and elect the Government and political leaders as well as the freedom from Corruption are some of the key factors as well.
Finally, people migrate from countries that encourage ethnic, religious and gender prosecution and discrimination.
The decision on Immigration destination by a prospective immigrant is based on many factors:
- Better quality of life as regards social security benefits vis-à-vis medical, educational with strong infrastructural – including abundant power and water – backup.
- Freedom of speech and freedom from corruption.
- Freedom from human rights abuse.
- Political freedom
- Freedom from discrimination on gender, ethnic and religious grounds
- Family reunification
While the above points are the major motivating factors for immigration; destined countries have their own specified set of rules and regulations to select the prospective migrants. The most popular criterion is the Points Based System (PBS). The countries accepting immigrants against the Point Based System include Canada, Australia, UK, New Zealand and Denmark.